The aim of this book is to provide an introduction to the increasingly exploited technology of Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIPping). It is intended for two audiences. Firstly, the manufacturing or design engineer who may not have a materials science background, but who needs to develop an appreciation of the scope of the HIPping process. Secondly, the engineering or materials undergraduate who needs to understand how HIPping as a modern manufacturing method can offer potential improvements to material properties relative to more conventional techniques. In view of the breadth of potential readership the text is written as far as possible in such a way that technical terms are explained as the reader goes along. There is little mathematics and the focus is on discussing the principal issues. For the reader who wishes to pursue the subject a further reading section has been compiled. For the student, a number of worked examples are also provided. Most of the worked examples are accessible to anyone with a good grasp of A-level physics.
As a pluralistic nation, Malaysia consists of diverse ethnic groups of people with various cultures that integrate harmonious and peaceful living in a politically stable and wonderfully rich environmental setting. Due to such unique features, people from abroad become largely attracted to this land and thus frequently arrive here as visitors and tourists. There are tremendous amounts of attractions for the visitors and tourists, and people from various backgrounds arrive to stay here temporarily, generating around RM65 billion in foreign earnings, adding to its national coffer every year. Nevertheless, tourism also causes a major negative effect in which the local culture may be assimilated into the alien norms and behaviors through the continuous process of acculturation. Due to day-to-day interactions with the tourists and visitors, many sociocultural impacts have affected local values, which contextually require to be redefined. This book analyzes critically the sociocultural and environmental impacts of tourism in Malaysia, having collected both qualitative and quantitative data at the empirical level of investigation.
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